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TENNESSEE-
HAMILTON COUNTY, TN

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HAMILTON COUNTY, TN

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Do you have information to provide?
Your help is needed to make this site better for all the people inside and outside of Hamilton County, Tennessee.  We are particularly interested in documenting the history of Hamilton  County.  If you have useable information we are anxious to publish it on this site or will provide a link if you have it already posted on the net. Many thanks.

 

HISTORY OF HAMILTON COUNTY
Much of the historical information shown to follow was gathered from a delightful bicycle ride along the River Park trail which starts downtown Chattanooga and ends at Chickamauga Dam, a distance of about 8 miles.  You need to CHECK OUT THIS TRAIL.

 

EARLY DEVELOPMENT
PRE SETTLEMENT TIMES ON THE RIVER

From the time the Tennessee Valley was first inhabited over 10,000 years ago, the Tennessee River and its tributaries have been a vital source of transportation, communication and trade.  When regular contact between Europeans and Cherokees became common, much of the Chattanooga area was hunted but uninhabited because it was the disputed territory of three native tribes.  After Britain gained colonial control of all lands east of the Mississippi River, they proclaimed much of the southwest territory off-limits to settlers.  So, while the British considered much of East Tennessee, North Georgia, and Northeast Alabama Cherokee land, American settlers wanted these lands for their own.

 

RIVER PASSAGE
The Tennessee River for centuries was a highway for Native Americans, traveling by canoe.  Then, in the mid 1830's, many of the early Ross's Landing settlers floated themselves and their few belongings on flatboats past this bluff.  Later, the river was dotted with keelboats laden with goods for delivery at Ross's Landing and churning steamboats filled with passengers and freight.

 

ROSS'S LANDING
Ross’s Landing was an Indian trading center for many years
Was established by John and Lewis Ross 1816
They were sons of an early Scottish settler who married into Cherokee Tribe
Landing consisted of a landing, warehouse, and ferry service
It was the southern edge of a ford to cross the Tennessee River
It was an important supply route for religious missions by the Cherokee
Indians removed to the West on Trail of Tears 1838
White settlers changed the name of the area to Chattanooga
A military bridge was located on site during Civil War
Bridge destroyed during flood of 1867
River could only be crossed by ferry until Walnut St Bridge constructed 1891
The Ross Landing area is listed on National Registe

 

ROSS LANDING (Early 1800's)
John Ross spent his first years in North Georgia, near the Coosa River.  In 1800, when he was 10, his father established a homestead at the foot of Lookout Mountain, on the road between Brown's Ferry and John McDonald's trading post.  In 1813, Ross married Quatie Brown, and shortly thereafter, he joined the group of Cherokees who fought with Andrew Jackson against the British and the Creek in the war of 1812.  Upon returning from battle, John Ross and Timothy Meigs established a mercantile business near the mouth of the Hiwassee River.  When Meigs died in 1815, John's brother, Lewis Ross, joined the company.  Leaving Lewis in charge of the Hiwassee operation, Ross moved downriver to build a ferry and warehouse on the south bank of the Tennessee River.  Ross's Landing stretched from the foot of the bluff as far west as today's Market Street, which was possibly the site where Ross's ferry landed.

The type of ferry built by Ross is not known, but a swing ferry was in use in the 1850's.  This ferry traveled from bank to bank like a pendulum, with its hub on Chattanooga (now Maclellan) Island.  A cable attached to this hub was suspended by several buoys and attached to a flat-bottomed craft.  By moving the rudder, the operator could use the current of the river to push the platform and its cargo to the chosen bank.

In 1819, Cherokee land north of the Tennessee River was ceded to the United States.  That same year, John Ross was elected president of the Cherokee National Committee.  Tennessee's General Assembly created Hamilton County in the fall of 1819, making Ross's Landing an active hub for the transfer of goods from one nation to another.  Ross himself stood as the chief negotiator between these two nations.

 

ROSS'S LANDING

Established about 1816 by John Ross some 370 yards east of this point.  It consisted of a ferry, warehouse, and landing.  With the organization of Hamilton County in 1819 north of the river.  It served not only the Cherokee trade but also as a convenient business center for the country.  Cherokee parties left from the landing for the West in 1838, the same year the growing community took the name Chattanooga.

 

JOHN ROSS

(1790 - 1866)  John Ross was the grandson of John McDonald and the son of Daniel Ross, natives of Scotland and partners in a trading post established at Ross's Landing.  He dedicated himself to the education of the Cherokee Nation.  John Ross i called the greatest of the Cherokee chiefs, although only one-eighth Cherokee.  He served as principal chief from 1828 - 1866.  He fought against the removal of the Cherokees from this region, ultimately leading them on the Trail of Tears journey to Oklahoma in 1838.

 

 TRAIL OF TEARS

In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory (Oklahoma).  About 15,000 Cherokees were placed in stockade in Tennessee and Alabama until their removal.  Roughly 3,000 were sent by boat down the Tennessee River and the rest were marched overland in the fall and winter of 1938 - 1939.  This force removal under harsh conditions resulted in the deaths of about 4,000 Cherokees.  In late June 1938 a party of 1,070 poorly equipped Indians was marched overland from Ross' Landing at Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Waterloo, Alabama because of low water in the upper Tennessee River. 
Following the general route of present-day U S Highway 72, they camped at Bolivar, Bellefonte, and Woodville (Jackson County, Alabama).  About 300 escaped along the way, and on June 26, the remainder refused to proceed from Bellefonte.  The local militia, under the command of Army Captain G S Drano, was called out to get the group started and escort it to Waterloo.  Arriving in miserable condition on July 10, 1838, the Cherokees were placed on boats to continue their journey West.  The "Trail of Tears", which resulted from the Indian Removal Act passed by U S Congress in 1830, is one of the darkest chapters in American history.  This historical marker will forever mark the beginning of this "Trail of Tears".

 

NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE CHEROKEE INDIANS (Late 1700's)
In 1775, Richard Henderson, a North Carolina judge, negotiated a treaty with several Cherokee chiefs which ceded 20,000,000 acres of Cherokee land.  It was this treaty which provoked the young brave Tsu-gun-sini--Dragging Canoe-- to withdraw with his followers to the Chattanooga area.  From here they planned to prevent further loss of Cherokee lands.

In this struggle, Dragging Canoe was aided by John McDonald, a Scotsman who had established a trading post in the gap of Missionary Ridge later known as Rossville, who was also Britain's agent to the Cherokee.  From the time of America's Revolutionary War until 1794.  Dragging Canoe and his followers (called the Chickamaugas, though they were not a separate tribe)  were responsible for several raids on colonial properties and people, but the main threat they raised was to settlers attempting to move via the Tennessee River.  In 1785, the Chickamaugas stopped a boat carrying trade goods south from Baltimore.  John McDonald prevented them from killing the boat's passengers, one of whom was a fellow Scotsman, Daniel Ross.  Ross joined McDonald as a trading partner, and cemented this union by marrying McDonald's daughter.  The third child of this marriage, though only one-eighth Cherokee, became one of the greatest of the Cherokee leader, John Ross

 

ON INDIAN REMOVAL
It gives me pleasure to announce to Congress that the benevolent policy of the Government, steadily pursued for nearly thirty years, in relation to the removal of the Indians beyond the white settlements is approaching to a happy consummation... The consequences of a speedy removal will be important to the United States, to individual States, and to the Indians themselves...  It will separate the Indians from immediate contact with settlements of whites;  free them from the power of the States; enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own institutions; will retard the progress of decay, which is lessening their numbers, and perhaps cause them gradually, under the protection of the Government and through the influence of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community.  (President Andrew Jackson, Message to Congress 1830)

 

CAMP CHEROKEE:  THE REMOVAL OF 1838

Under the terms of the 1835 Treaty of New Echota, all Cherokees remaining in the region were to move west by 1838 to Indian Territory, today's Oklahoma.  A small number of Native Americans emigrated voluntarily, but most of the Cherokee Nation remained, hoping that the disastrous treaty could be annulled.  Federal troops, state militia and volunteers began assembling in Tennessee and neighboring states in 1836 to carry out the removal.  A stockade fort was erected to house a company of troops assigned to the post of Ross's Landing (Chattanooga).  As the summer of 1838 arrived, the military began the forced removal of the Cherokees from their homes and fields.
Collected at gun point, the Cherokees were herded into internment camps.  The internment camp near this site was called Camp Cherokee.  Several parties of Native Americans were sent downriver by barge and steamboat before low river levels during the summer halted that means of transport.  In October 1838, the final groups of Cherokees departed on an overland march west.  The "Trail of Tears" claimed the lives of several thousand people due to malnourishment, disease, exposure, exhaustion, and heartbreak.

 

THE ABODE OF WATER LIZARD
In preparation for the Removal, the lands and improvements of Cherokees in the region were appraised in 1836 in order to provide financial compensation for property that could not be transported west to Arkansas.  Occupying a homestead near the mouth of Citico Creek was a Cherokee named Water Lizard.  The homestead included a house of hewed timber, a log kitchen, smokehouse, corncrib, and stable.  He farmed thirty acres of "low ground" and tended an orchard of 38 peach trees and three apple trees.  In 1838, Anglo-American settlers on the north shore of the Tennessee River and Native Americans on the opposite bank lived very similar lifestyles, but were tragically separated by prejudice, power, and greed for new land that led to the "Trail of Tears".

 

REMOVAL OF THE CHEROKEE NATION- TRAIL OF TEARS (1836)
In 1826, Ross sold his Rossville holdings, the ferry, and the warehouse.  He then moved closer to the capital of the Cherokee Nation in North Georgia, committing his energy to the struggle to maintain possession of Cherokee lands.  Though many Cherokees had moved west of the Mississippi as early as 1817, the vast majority had remained behind, hoping a permanent settlement could be reached with the U S government.  Chief John Ross worked toward this goal for 20 years, but when three rival leaders signed the Treaty of Removal in 1836, Ross's work was futile.  This treaty ceded all Cherokee land east of the Mississippi to the United States.  In return, the Cherokees received five million dollars and seven million acres in the west.  The removal was to be completed within two years.  Ross continued to challenge the validity of the treaty (those who signed it were later assassinated but to no avail.  In 1838, the Cherokee wee forcibly  removed from their farms and villages, to be held in three stockades, one of which was located near Ross's Landing.  Three groups left Ross's Landing in June, 1838, but sent news that poor traveling conditions had caused the death of several of their number.  Ross asked for a delay in the Removal so that the summer heat and low water might be avoided.  This delay was granted, and 2500 Cherokees spent the summer in Camp Cherokee, near Ross's Landing.

Later in the fall of 1838, the final group of 13,000 marched away from Rattlesnake Springs, near Charleston, Tennessee.  Hundreds died on the journey, and among them was Ross's wife.  The loss, both to our region, and to its native inhabitants, remains incalculable.

Though Ross and his people were forced to leave, the settlement which had grown around his ferry and warehouse continued to grow as a center of river and rail trade, and just twenty-five years after the forced removal of the Cherokee Nation, the Chattanooga area would again be the site of tragic struggle between two nations.

After the removal of the Cherokee Nation in 1838, the southern bank of the Tennessee River was open for legal settlement.  Prior to the Removal, 53 families had settled in Ross's Landing to establish occupancy rights.  These families formed the core of the community that decided to call itself by the Creek name for Lookout Mountain--Chattanooga.

The new community hoped to become more than an overgrown village, and it pinned these hopes on the development of an economy that could utilize the area's natural and geographical assets.  Chattanooga's boosters felt sure that their town would grow rapidly in size, regional importance and economic value, and they set out to prove this by developing an industrial base, by improving river traffic, and by establishing a hub for far-ranging rail network.

Chattanooga's geographic position made it a natural candidate for regional warehousing and riverboat transport, but natural obstructions south of town made this a difficult task.  Shoals and a whirlpool at the Suck necessitated significant improvements for navigation at regular water levels, and made the river unnavigable in the low water seasons, from late summer to early fall.  Further south, the Muscle Shoals made steamboat navigation impossible, and thus prevented easy passage to the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.  The lack of a convenient method of east-west transportation led many Chattanoogans to see the railroad as the channel of the future

 

EARLY HISTORY OF CHATTANOOGA
FIRST RAIL LINE TO SERVE CHATTANOOGA (1850)
The first rail line to appear in Chattanooga was Georgia's Western and Atlantic, completed in 1850.  But within the next decade, the Nashville and Chattanooga, the Memphis and Charleston, the East Tennessee and Georgia, and the Wills Valley also established lines that connected with Chattanooga and eventually used a common terminal at the south end of town.  Chattanooga had quickly become an important hub for regional rail transportation.

Aside from a distillery and flour mill, a brickyard, a water company, and corn and flour mill, the most important industrial developments in Chattanooga were made by the East Tennessee Iron Manufacturing Company.  Two separate operation were based here in Chattanooga.  In 1854, the foundry at the south end of town was producing wrought and cast iron materials for use on the railroads, while on the bank of the river, the company built the Bluff Furnace.  In 1856, Bluff Furnace began reducing Roane County ore.

 

LIFE ON THE RIVER AFTER THE CIVIL WAR (1860's)
After the Civil War, the governments of Chattanooga and Tennessee were both nearly bankrupt, but in July, 1866, Tennessee became the first Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union.  Because they would not suffer from further military occupation, the way seemed clear for Chattanooga to get back on the track toward growth.  Essentially, this path involved the same activities which had driven pre-war Chattanooga:  attracting industry and exploiting to the fullest the already existent possibilities of river and rail transportation.

Navigation of the Tennessee continued to be organized as Upper River trade and Lower River trade because of the unnavigable Muscle Shoals.  The full route for the Upper River boats was from Knoxville to Decatur, Alabama, but the companies involved found it more convenient to split the Upper River nearly in half, with Chattanooga as the midpoint between the other two ports.  They did this not only because their boats could stay more consistently loaded with a shorter, more regular schedule, but also because at Chattanooga's rail head, cargoes could be shipped to, or brought from, Charleston in the east, and the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the west.

Steamers wharfing in Chattanooga commonly carried cotton, grain, sugar, molasses, whiskey, iron ore, coal, and passengers.  When cotton was the main cargo the biggest challenge for the wharf manager was to find a place to store it.  When the wharf was clogged with cotton bales from Market Street to the foot of Cameron Hill, the cotton was stacked in vacant lots and sidewalks as far into town as Ninth Street (now M L King, Jr Blvd).
Boats leaving Chattanooga carried finished wood products, pig iron, textiles and anything the railroad might bring from other parts of the United States, including people.  A stately cruise of 12-15 mph was a pleasant and scenic way to reach a destination, and most of the boats that wharfed into Chattanooga could be rented for excursions or parties

The Joe Wheeler was the last of the active steam packets, and in 1920, some of its parts were used to build the Captain Lyerly, which was used as a towboat.  Towboats became the main type of commercial craft as the century progressed, and while this change took place, the engines changed as well.  Diesel-powered engines pulled heavy loads faster and more efficiently than steamboats, and they were soon the only commercial boats on the river.

 

EARLY FLOODING OF THE TENNESSEE RIVER (Late 1800's)
On March 7, 1867, the Tennessee River began to rise at the rate of one foot per hour.  Chattanooga experienced floods every spring, but this one, later known as the Great Flood continued to rise until March 11, when the waters crested at 57.9 feet above low water levels.  The second day of the flood sent the Meigs Military Bridge (minus the stones from the Bluff Furnace walls) floating downriver, and by the fourth day, all but the highest ground in the city was under several feet of water. 

This flood (and two others in 1875 and 1886, both of which were more than 50 feet above low water levels)  convinced the city, when rebuilding, to significantly raise the levels of Chattanooga's streets.  In some cases, current street levels are as much as ten feet higher than those of the last century.  But even with today's street levels, a flood on the scale of the Great Flood would reach the second level of many buildings on Market Street.

 

19th CENTURY INDUSTRY
The Tennessee River was a major avenue of commerce in the 19th century for a number of industries.  In the 1880's, the Blair Lumber Company operated a sawmill in this location.  Millions of feet of logs were rafted down the river from the forests drained by the Clinch, Powell, Houston and French Broad rivers in upper East Tennessee.  Perched on the high ground adjacent to the river, the steam-powered sawmills hauled logs from the river up long inclined ramps to be debarked, cut and dried into lumber for use in local and regional industries.  Brick makers, such as D J Chandler and J F Wright, mined clay from the rich alluvial deposits along the riverbank and fired the bricks in kilns near the river.  The Riverwalk passes over a wetland that is the remnant of a brick clay-mining pit excavated by J W Wells and Company in the early 20th Century.

Chattanooga could claim success in all of its attempts to gain an industrial base and to expand river and rail transport, but in the 1880's, questions of wharf ownership entangled the city in a protracted lawsuit, and endangered continued growth on the river.  V K Stevenson owned the lion's share of the wharf, and felt entitled to collect wharfage fees from those boats which docked at his property.  Local merchants felt that this discouraged river trade and pressed the city to establish the wharf as free and public.  Unfortunately, an 1852 ordinance had relinquished all city claims to the land on the waterfront.  The city's only option, other than buying the land outright, was to forbid the charging of wharfage to any boats that landed at the foot of Market, Broad or Chestnut Street.  In effect, the city claimed that these streets, and their rights of way, ran directly into the river, and were public property.  Stevenson then began the legal battle that would last longer than he did.  When the suit was decided in favor of his estate, improvements were made to the property.  A metal tramway stretched from a warehouse to the water's edge, and a conveyor belt that was three feet wide carried sacks of grain from the boats directly into a warehouse at Chestnut Street.  Also, Stevenson's estate granted permission for a Belt Railroad to pass through the property.  This spur line ran from the depot at Ninth and Market Streets, west toward the river, then followed near the banks of the river around the base of Cameron Hill and then east to Market Street.  The Belt Railroad shuttled freight between the trains and the riverboats, and also carried goods made by riverfront industries to the rail head at the south end of town.

A deal was accomplished in 1906 and the city finally owned the wharf property from Market to Chestnut Street.  Landowners on the east side of Market also offered to sell their wharf property, which might then have extended the public wharf to the original site of Ross's Landing, but the city declined. 

One successful industry in Chattanooga used lumber from forests in East Tennessee, North Carolina and Virginia.  Floated down the Tennessee, the logs made their way to Chattanooga sawmills, where they were cut into usable lumber.  After drying, the wood was sent to planning mills for finishing.  One long-active riverfront company, Loomis and Hart, operated saw and planning mills, and manufactured wooden furniture.

Other industries with sites on the waterfront were mills for corn and flour, a distillery, a pork packing plant, an ice company, a foundry for fabricating iron, and a brickyard which made bricks from the clay of the river bank.

One of the largest and most successful companies near the river was the Chattanooga Brewing Company, which occupied the entire block bounded by Broad, Chestnut, Second and Third Streets.  This company was a successful employer in Chattanooga from the late 1880's until the pressures of Prohibition forced it out of business in 1918.  In 1929 the site was bought by the Coca-Cola Bottling Company.  Another victim of Prohibition was the White Oak Distillery, which produced its own whiskey but also served as a regional distributor for several other brands.

 

MARKET STREET BRIDGE

THE MARKET STREET BRIDGE (1914)
By 1911, load limits and costly repairs of the Walnut Street Bridge led officials to begin planning for a new bridge.  Many officials and residents of Chattanooga wanted a Market Street Bridge because so much of the traffic crossing the river was destined for Market Street, the commercial center of downtown.  But officials also wanted a concrete bridge because maintenance would be easier. 
A Market Street location, then, was problematic in several ways.  First, this location would destroy part of the wharf.  Second, the level of the land at this location would dictate a low bridge, and the Army Corps of Engineers would only approve a bridge with channel spans 300 feet wide with 100 feet clearance because of the possibility that gunboats might have to travel the river.  A concrete bridge would be unable to meet these requirements at Market Street without a drawbridge, and the necessary width of the spans also made the use of concrete unlikely.

Fortunately, the city's chief engineer, B H Davis, came up with a design that would please both the City Commissioners and the Army Corps of Engineers.  The approved design was for a concrete bridge which would have the required 300 foot channel span, with shorter spans from the banks of the river to the central piers.  In order to meet the federal height requirements, the central span would be a steel drawbridge of bascule design.  This type of drawspan  lifts, like one side of a see-saw, because of a counterweight.  On the Market Street Bridge, each wing of the drawspan is counterbalanced by a block of concrete which moves toward the roadbed as it lifts the center of the span.

Construction began in late November 1914.  The city issued $500.000 in 5%, 30-year bonds to finance the construction of the bridge, but as the engineers ran into more and more difficult problems, it became apparent that the bridge would cost far more.

The biggest problems arose because of the piers.  In one site, an underground stream flowed into the cofferdam, preventing the concrete from drying;  eventually the spring itself had to be plugged with concrete.  Another site had, not a solid bottom, but a collection of large boulders.  Caissons were built so that workmen called "sand hogs" could work underwater, excavating the boulders to reach bedrock.  On top of their caissons rested a concrete pier 55 feet high, which weighed more than a million pounds.  As their excavation moved closer to the bedrock, the pier moved down with them.

To build the concrete arches and the roadbed to span the piers, the contractor had to erect wooden falseworks.  These were strong and fairly elaborate pieces of work, but they required constant attention because they prevented driftwood from passing.  If left to accumulate, the driftwood formed an obstacle movable only with explosives.  On December 19, 1916, a 28-foot flood caused driftwood to accumulate at a rate too fast to be controlled, and when the falseworks were dislodged by the pressure of the river, the span had to be abandoned because the concrete had not yet cured.  The year of 1916 saw continued cost overruns and construction difficulties, and in March of 1917, the bridge faced another challenge.  All of the masonry work was complete and work on a concrete counterweight had begun when the river again flooded, cresting on March 7 after reaching the fourth highest water level recorded in Chattanooga's history.  The bridge, however, was largely undamaged, and work continued.  The drawbridge was successfully tested on August 3, and on November 17, 1917, the bridge was officially opened and presented to the county.  It was named to honor Chief John Ross, who led the Cherokee Nation west on the Trail of Tears.

There was not as much pomp, nor were there as many attendees as there had been when the Walnut Street Bridge opened, but the bridge remains an engineering feat.  Even though it cost twice as much as the county hoped it would, it remains the largest bridge of its type in the U S, and the third largest in the world.

Bridge under construction... again

 

Market Street Bridge Visited... Monday, October 12, 1998

Bridges are one of Chattanooga's scenic strengths.

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Market Street Bridge finds it's place in the sun

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MARKET STREET BRIDGE

 

MUSCLE SHOALS CANAL (1890's)
The opening of the Muscle Shoals Canal in 1890 breathed new life into Tennessee river boating operations which had begun to decline.  Finally boats could make their way to St Louis and the Mississippi River, offering shipping rates that could challenge the railroads.  When lower rates were not immediately offered by the Tennessee River Transportation Company, a group of local investors organized a company known locally as the Chattanooga Steamboat Company.  When this company also failed to drive rates down, the Chattanooga Packet Company was formed by local businessmen.  As the century neared its close, possibilities for river boating were promising, but the wharfage problem resurfaced in 1897.  The Tennessee River Navigation Company (a reorganized version of the Tennessee River Transportation Company) and the Chattanooga Packet Company controlled the wharf space at the landing, and merchants complained that boats not affiliated with these two companies were often unable to land and unload.

This was to remain the case for nearly another decade, when the Chattanooga Packet Company acquired the option to buy the Tennessee River Navigation Company, including its boats, wharf property, and improvements.  The Chattanooga Packet Company then offered the city the option to buy the wharf property for $50,000.  The company would keep the new boats, but would lease the wharf from the city for $2,000 per year.

 

MODERN TIMES ON THE RIVER
As the 20th Century moved forward, Chattanooga's riverfront underwent massive changes.  Higher water levels along the Tennessee River allowed many companies on or near the river to operate their own wharfs.  Steam engines lost out to diesel-powered engines early in the century, and these powerful boats were (and continue to be) used to tow large barges filled with grain, salt, sand, coal, lime or gravel.  The long time competitor of river transport, the railroads, also ceased to hold as much importance as automotive modes of transport worked their way into American culture.  An elaborate and far-reaching highway and interstate system made travel and transport by road the primary source of transportation in America by the middle of the century, and increasing traffic in the Chattanooga area led to dramatic changes on the riverfront.

 

DAMMING UP THE TENNESSEE RIVER (Early 1900's)
Property rights were not the only things changing on the Tennessee River.  The river itself was being more regularly maintained, and after the completion of the Hale's Bar Lock and Dam, changed completely.  On the side of Cameron Hill, the Federal Government had established a shipyard where they built ships that could dredge and maintain a navigable channel on the Tennessee.  In 1905, workers began to build a type of structure that would forever alter the character of the entire Tennessee River.

In 1913, after eight years of construction south of Chattanooga, Hale's Bar Lock and Dam was finished.  The waters of the river from the dam to an area north of Chattanooga became a lake, and water levels at Ross's Landing were six feet higher than before.  This dam ended the era of the Suck, the Boiling Pot, and the Skillet, dangerous shoals south of town which had required skilled riverboat pilots.  Though many pilots regretted the taming of the Tennessee, this dam also began the era of harnessing the power of wild river for the generation of electricity.

 

BUILDING THE DAMS & TVA (Early 1900's)
The completion of the Hale's Bar Lock and Dam in 1913 created a slack water lake that drowned the treacherous shoals south of Chattanooga.  At the same time, it provided electrical power to a growing city.  The success of this venture, coupled with that of the first Ocoee Dam, led many in Tennessee Valley to believe that the best approach to the Muscle Shoals was to submerge them.  After America joined World War I, Woodrow Wilson chose Muscle Shoals as the site for a dam which could provide electricity for the war effort while it was needed, but which, in peacetime, could be turned to the production of nitrates for agricultural use.

The Wilson Dam was begun in 1917 but not completed until after the war.  Its future use was then the subject of heated debate favored giving private companies the management of, the facility and the distribution of its products. 

Others, like Nebraska Senator, George Norris thought the best course to develop the entire river system, leaving it in control of the government, and making power available to the to the communities within the valley.  The debate (but not the disagreement) was ended in 1933, when Franklin Roosevelt suggested, and congress created, the Tennessee Valley Authority.  TVA was given the responsibility for developing the entire watershed area for increased navigability, flood control, production of electricity, and proper use of lands in an area which includes portions of seven states (Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi).  Private electricity companies did not believe they could compete with an entity backed by the money of the Federal government, so they filed lawsuits challenging the constitutionality of TVA and its charter.  When these suits were decided in TVA's favor, companies like the Tennessee Electric Power Company sold their properties and improvements to TVA.  The municipalities that would receive electricity from the Authority also contributed to this buyout.

Chattanooga's share of the Tennessee Electric Power Company buyout was over ten million dollars, but TVA spent nearly forty million constructing the Chickamauga Dam.  Most of this cost was simply the labor and material required to build a 5800 foot dam, but in the creation of a lake nearly sixty miles long with over 800 miles of shoreline, much land was necessarily submerged.  TVA purchased the land from property owners in the Harrison and Dallas areas and all the land to be covered by water was cleared of buildings and trees.  The dam was completed on January 15, 1940, and two years later contributed to America's war effort by producing electricity used by Chattanooga's industries.  TVA contributed in other ways as well, producing fertilizer for increased food production, producing chemicals for use in explosives, and clearing a 60,000 acre forest now know as Oak Ridge, where weapons of incredible destructive force were developed.

TVA continued to be important for the government after the war, because of its ability to produce large amounts of electricity.  Aerospace work in Tullahoma and the projects of NASA in Huntsville both require huge amounts of power, and as part of its effort to produce these significant stores of electricity, TVA quickly developed nuclear power facilities.  Controversy has surrounded these plants from their inception, and the last decade has seen increased concern over the necessity, cost, and safety of these facilities.  TVA is no stranger to controversy, however, for the debate began before they received their charge, and it has been revived many times.  As the debate continues, TVA will continue to pursue their mission, which is to provide energy and related services to a growing community.

 

CIVIL WAR
THE CIVIL WAR (1860's)
As the conflict between the North and South became more intense, many residents of Chattanooga had mixed sympathies.  The town was obviously in the South, but further economic growth could only come as a result of increased trade with the North.  However, when states began to secede from the Union, Chattanooga stood firmly on the side of the Confederacy.  With this support they differed from the rest of Hamilton County and from the rest of East Tennessee.  There were many staunch Unionists in the county, and many of them joined the Union Army.  William Crutchfield, whose brother owned a large hotel near the railway depot, nearly struck a blow for the Union before the war even began by offending the visiting Jefferson Davis so much that a duel was mentioned.  Curtchfield joined the Union Army, and in 1863 returned home for the Battles of Chickamauga and Chattanooga, where several members of his family fought against him.

After an unproductive 1862 campaign in Kentucky, General Braxton Bragg wintered in Murfreesboro.  In the spring of 1863 he retreated across the Cumberland Plateau, and by July his army and many retreating civilians occupied Chattanooga.  In the first week of September, a Union artillery group appeared on the north bank of the river and began to shell the town.  The bombardment did little damage to either the city or to the occupying army, but it was an effective.

 

BLUE VS GRAY IN CHATTANOOGA
After defeat at the battle of Chickamauga in September, 1863, Union forces retired to Chattanooga and constructed a ring of fortifications around the town to secure a foothold on the south bank of the Tennessee River.  Overlooking this location on the hill to the south, Federal soldiers manned a cannon emplacement commanding the mouth of Citico Creek and dug rifle pits beside the river facing Missionary Ridge.  The cannon emplacement was later named for Lieutenant Colonel P A McAloon of the 27th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers who was killed in action on November 25, 1863.  The Battery Place Neighborhood is named for the Union batteries located on the high ground overlooking the river.

 

CITICO MOUND:  UNION SOLDIERS

The Citico Mound was the central feature of a Mississippian town that flourished between 1,000 A D and the time of the first European contact.  The Native American mound was 100 feet across and 40 feet high and served as a platform for a chief's house.  Cherokees, who arrived in the area at a later date, named the site "Citico".  The mound was destroyed during construction of Riverside Drive.
After the battles of Chattanooga in November 1836, Union troops used Citico Mound and the adjacent riverbank as a recreation area for convalescing soldiers.  A two-story observation cupola was erected on the top of the mound and ornamental plantings, arbors and benches were added.  Log rafts were anchored to the riverbank and used as fishing platforms.  Enterprising soldiers tunneled into the base of the mound to search for relics, but during a cannonade to celebrate the surrender of General Robert E Lee in April 1865, vibrations collapsed the tunnel.

 

CIVIL WAR RIVER CROSSING

General Ulysses S Grant's plan for lifting the siege of Chattanooga called for the Union Army of the Tennessee under General William T Sherman to cross the Tennessee River and strike the Confederate Army's flank on the northern end of Missionary Ridge.  The crossing plans involved massing a large number of pontoon boats at a point four hundred yards from the convergence of North Chickamauga Creek and the Tennessee River.  Union troops rowing downriver would secure a landing on the southern bank of the Tennessee just below the mouth of South Chickamauga Creek

The Union army engineers would throw a 1,200 foot-long bridge across the Tennessee to facilitate the crossing of the rest of Sherman's men.  Around midnight on November 23, 1863, Union troops boarded the pontoon boats moored in North Chickamauga Creek.  After entering the Tennessee River, part of the flotilla moved silently downstream and landed just north of the mouth of South Chickamauga Creek, the other pontoons landing south of the creek.  The Federals quickly rounded up surprised Confederate pickets who had failed to raise the alarm.  Within a short time, the Union troops constructed a stretch of substantial earthworks around their position.

Throughout the predawn hours of November 24, oarsmen hastily plied their boats back and forth across the Tennessee River.  At the same time, engineers began work on the pontoon bridge that would span the river.  The completion of this bridge around noon on November 24, along with the arrival at the crossing site of the side wheeler Dunbar, greatly facilitated the passage of Sherman's troops, horses, and cannon.  This uncontested crossing of the Tennessee River put the Union troops in a highly advantageous position of November 24, near the right flank of Bragg's army.  The bridge's southern terminus was in the vicinity of the large grain silos.  A short distance east of the mouth of South Chickamauga Creek was the location of another Union pontoon bridge.

 

PEOPLE OF HAMILTON COUNTY
COUNTY Named for Alexander Hamilton Served as first Secretary of the Treasury under President George Washington
Fought in the Revolutionary War

 

HISTORICAL TIME LINE OF HAMILTON COUNTY
1540 Spanish expedition of Hernando De Soto passed through area
1663 British established colony of Carolina which included all of Tennessee
French from the Mississippi Valley also claimed the land
1761 "Old French Store" first structure by European men built in area
Store became trading post
Is now marked by a historical plaque
1763 French and Indian War ends
England gained undisputed title to the territory
1777 Chief Dragging Canoe moved to South Chickamauga Creek Villages
Was member of Chickamauga Indians, a splinter group of the Cherokees
They resisted European settlement of area
Cooperated with the British in the American Revolution
1794 Ignoring federal policy, militiamen destroyed primary Chickamauga Indian towns
Ended struggle for area now including Chattanooga
Several battles fought between Native Indians and settlers on Lookout Mountain
1796 Tennessee became the 16th state
Native American lands making up about three-fourth of Chattanooga area
1805 The Cherokee and the U S government agreed to open first roads in area
1816 Ross’s Landing established at the to be site of Chattanooga
1817-38 Cemetery established at site of Old Brainerd Mission
One of oldest in Chattanooga
Contains graves of Indians and missionaries
Mission built by Congregational and Presbyterian Church
Named for missionary David Brainerd
Served as school for the Cherokees
First in America to teach arts and agriculture to Native Americans
1819 Hamilton County established on lands north of the Tennessee River
1820 Population of Hamilton county was 82
1828 First steamboat, the Atlas, traveled from Chattanooga to Knoxville
John Ross elected first Principal Chief of Cherokee Nation
He successfully resisted removal of his people to Oklahoma Territory until 1838
1837 A U S Post Office opened at Ross’s landing
John P Long became first postmaster
1838 The infamous "Trail of Tears" started by boat from Chattanooga
John Ross, Principal Chief of the Cherokees traveled on one of the boats
His wife was one of thousands who died on trip
First issue of the Hamilton Gazette printed by Ferdinand A Parham
Later called the Chattanooga Gazette
1839 Two different early names, Ross’ Landing and Lookout City
Tennessee legislature passed an act establishing town of Chattanooga
City’s name may be derived from:
1. Creek language meaning "rock coming to a point" referring to Lookout Mountain
2. An Indian word for "hawk’s nest"
3. A corruption of the name of a settlement called "Tsatanuge"
Settlement located at foot of Lookout mountain
1850 Western & Atlantic Railroad ran first train from Atlanta to Chattanooga
1854 The Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad completed
1858 East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad completed a direct line from Chattanooga
1861 Tennessee seceded from the Union
Chattanooga favored the decision
Hamilton County majority voted to stay in Union
Bridge burners tried to disrupt rail service in East Tennessee
Unionists destroyed two local bridges
Confederate troops arrived in town on November 14th
1862 Union spies, "Andrews Raiders" hijacked steam locomotive, "The General" in Atlanta
Party of eight convicted of spying and hung in Atlanta by Confederate authorities
Are buried in Chattanooga’s military cemetery
Statue honoring group placed in National Cemetery
The group was recipients of first Congressional Medal of Honor
Andrews, a civilian, was not awarded the medal
1863 Confederate forces evacuated Chattanooga
Bloodiest two day battle of Civil War occurred at Chickamauga on Sept 19th and 20th
More than 34,000 Union and Confederate soldiers killed
Chattanooga’s most famous engagement fought on Lookout Mountain on Nov 24th
Clouds prevented Confederate gunners support from top of mountain
Engagement named "The Battle Above the Clouds"
General Ulysses Grant directed assault on Missionary Ridge on Nov 25th
Thirty one Congressional Medals of Honor awarded for battles around city
One given to Arthur MacArthur, father of General Douglas MacArthur
National Cemetery established by General George Thomas
Contains graves of more than 25,000 soldiers from ten wars:
French & Indian War, Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Civil War, Spanish American War, World War I, World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, Persian Gulf War.
1864 General William Sherman began his "March to the Sea" from Chattanooga base
Amassed force of 100,000 troops
1867 Largest recorded flood occurred on Tennessee River
The riverboat "Cherokee" made 50 mile trip to Bridgeport, Alabama in just two hours
1869 First issue of "The Chattanooga Times" published
1870 Hamilton County courthouse moved to Chattanooga from Harrison
1872 Read House Hotel opened on New Year’s Day
Located on site of old Crutchfield House
Listed on National Register of Historic Sites
1878 Yellow fever epidemic swept through area
366 people died from fever
1880 First telephone exchange opened
1882 Chattanooga first received electricity
1885 Construction of Lookout Mountain’s first incline railroad began
1886 Chattanooga University opened
1890 Chickamauga/Chattanooga National Military Park dedicated
Park contains 8,200 acres
Is nations oldest and largest military park
1891 Walnut Street Bridge across Tennessee River opened
1895 Lookout Mountain’s second Incline Railway began operation
Is steepest passenger railway in the world
Steepest grade in 72.7 degrees
1898 Chickamauga Battlefield served as training base during Spanish-American War
1899 First franchised Coca-Cola bottling plant built in city
Benjamin F Thomas and Joseph B Whitehead paid $1.00 each for bottling rights
1904 Hales Bar Lock and Dam completed November 13, 1913
Fort Oglethorpe established as a permanent military post
1915 Dixie Highway linked the mid-west to Florida
1917 Market Street Bridge opened
1921 Tivoli Theater opened
A $43,000 Wurlitzer organ accompanied silent pictures
Building now home of Chattanooga Symphony and Opera
1928 Miniature golf invented on Lookout Mountain
Tom Thumb Course near Fairyland Club became first miniature golf course
1930 Engel Stadium opened
Is present home of the Chattanooga Lookouts
Lovell Field, city’s first airport opened
1933 Tennessee Valley Authority created
TVA’s system of locks and dams created 9 foot channel throughout Tennessee River
1935 Chattanoogan's voted for public power
Electric Power Board created
1936 Chattanooga Free Press published first daily newspaper
1940 Chickamauga Dam dedicated by President Roosevelt on Labor Day
Chickamauga Lake has 810 miles of shoreline
1941 Song "The Chattanooga Choo Choo" created by Irving Berlin
Was a score for the movie "Sun Valley Serenade"
Glen Miller received first ever gold record for song
1943 Fort Oglethorpe designated Third Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps training center
Fort closed Dec 31, 1946
1954 Chattanooga’s first TV station, Channel 12 went on air
1958 Golden Gateway urban renewal began
1962 Desegregation of city and county schools began
1965 Chattanooga State Technical Community College opened
1969 University of Chattanooga and Chattanooga City College merged with University of Tennessee
1971 Railroad passenger service ended
1973 Walnut Street Bridge closed
Southern Railroad station became part of Chattanooga Choo Choo Vacation Complex
1976 Bicentennial Library opened
1980 TVA completed Raccoon Mountain Pump-Storage-Hydro Plant
Sequoya Nuclear Plant opened
1984 First Riverbend Festival celebrated
1985 Convention & Trade Center Opened
The Southern Belle, a 500 passenger riverboat began operating from Ross’s Landing
The "Tennessee River Master Plan" approved to revitalize area
1989 First section of Tennessee Riverpark completed near Chickamauga Dam
1993 Tennessee Aquarium along with Ross’s Landing Park and Plaza opened
1995 Creative Discovery Museum opened
1996 IMAX 3D Theater opened

 

HAMILTON COUNTY AIRPORT

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1001 Airport Rd
Located approximately 20 minutes from downtown

CHATTANOOGA METROPOLITAN AIRPORT

 

HAMILTON COUNTY HIGHWAYS

I-24, I-75, 11, 27, 64, 41, 72, 76, 127

2, 8, 11, 27, 29, 38, 58, 60, 134, 153, 312, 317, 319, 320, 321

U S HIGHWAYS STATE HIGHWAYS

 

HAMILTON COUNTY POST OFFICES
Albion View Opened: April 30, 1888
Reopened: May 13, 1891
Closed: April 24 1891
Reclosed:
November 30, 1915
Alton Park Opened: May 6, 1895 Closed: June 30, 1920
Amnicola Opened: October 29, 1879
Reopened: August 24, 1880
Closed: August 5, 1800
Reclosed: August 29, 1888
Apison Opened: May 23, 1919 Closed: Operating
Avindale Opened: January 22, 1894 Closed: July 14, 1905
Bakewell Opened: July 10, 1914 Closed: February 28, 1964
Birch Wood Opened: September 12, 1854
Reopened: April 18, 1914
Closed: June 2, 1873
Reclosed: Operating
Boyce Opened: August 5, 1880
Reopened: August 29, 1888
Closed: August 24, 1880
Reclosed:
December 14, 1889
Bainerd Opened: February 6, 1834 Closed: February 20, 1838
Brown’s Chapel Opened: August 16, 1889 Closed: April 30, 1902
Bruce Opened: May 28, 1840 Closed: May 15, 1844
Bryce Junction Opened: September 24, 1879
Reopened: April 23, 1880
Closed: October 29, 1879
Reclosed: May 15, 1905
Chattanooga Opened: November 14, 1838 Closed: Operating
Chickamauga Opened: March 14, 1850
Reopened:
November 29, 1882
Closed: January 15, 1878
Reclosed: June 16, 1898
Chickamauga Station Opened: January 16, 1867 Closed: November 29, 1882
College Dale Opened: May 16, 1919 Closed: Operating
Coulterville Opened: June 3, 1879 Closed: May 31, 1918
Cozby Opened: July 27, 1850
Reopened:
February 3, 1857
Closed: March 27, 1855
Reclosed: May 14, 1857
Daisy Opened: December 12, 1883 Closed: October 13, 1972
Dallas Opened: February 20, 1833
Reopened: June 29, 1848
Reopened:
September 4, 1866
Closed: March 23, 1846
Reclosed: October 2, 1849
Reclosed:
September 13, 1872
Dearing Opened: April 12, 1854 Closed: October 13, 1858
Devine Opened: May 18, 1881 Closed: May 16, 1887
Double Branh Opened: May 20, 1856
Reopened: June 22, 1874
Closed: July 25, 1866
Reclosed: March 25, 1875
East Chattanooga Opened: December 14, 1889 Closed: July 4, 1905
East End Opened: March 23, 1888 Closed: October 16, 1895
Eastend Opened: October 16, 1895 Closed: December 15, 1914
Eastlake Opened: March 3, 1893 Closed: September 30, 1912
Endline Opened: May 25, 1897 Closed: April 14, 1900
Fairmont Opened: April 19, 1872 Closed: November 30, 1915
Falling Water Opened: August 11, 1874 Closed: May 14, 1906
Flattop Opened: July 10, 1909 Closed: April 15, 1944
Fruit Hill Opened: September 2, 1873 Closed: April 15, 1876
Georgetown Opened: April 3, 1867
Reopened:
January 18, 1941
Closed: December 13, 1872
Reclosed: Operating
Gold Point Opened: July 22, 1891 Closed: March 15, 1907
Grape Spring Opened: September 13, 1837 Closed: May 24, 1845
Hamilton Opened: May 11, 1822
Re-Opened: February 28, 1876
Closed: February 20, 1833
Re-Closed: June 2, 1884
Harrison Opened: June 16, 1841
Reopened: June 25, 1867
Reopened: May 12, 1885
Closed: May 28, 1867
Reclosed: April 3, 1873
Reclosed: Operating
Harveyton Opened: December 4, 1883 Closed: March 27, 1884
Hickory Valley Opened: March 28, 1840 Closed: June 9, 1842
Highland Park Opened: March 14, 1894 Closed: June 24, 1898
Hill City Opened: March 27, 1884 Closed: July 14, 1912
Hixon Opened: September 28, 1876 Closed: December 22, 1875
Hixson Opened: April 8, 1892 Closed: Operating
Hornville Opened: July 3, 1890 Closed: November 24, 1891
Howardville Opened: January 30, 1914 Closed: September 15, 1931
Hustle Opened: March 3, 1893 Closed: October 18, 1893
Igon’s Ferry Opened: April 6, 1871 Closed: November 14, 1905
Jersey Opened: December 2, 1889 Closed: July 14, 1904
Julian Gap Opened: March 5, 1850 Closed: May 14, 1857
Kings Point Opened: March 1, 1883 Closed: November 19, 1898
Kirklin Opened: August 15, 1882 Closed: April 10, 1888
Lakeside Opened: March 24, 1880 Closed: April 8, 1892
Lenora Springs Opened: June 8, 1858 Closed: September 22, 1866
Limestone Opened: March 9, 1837 Closed: April 3, 1867
Long Savannah Opened: March 29, 1836 Closed: September 22, 1866
Lookout Mountain Opened: June 11, 1867
Reopened: June 5, 1877
Closed: April 17, 1876
Reclosed: Operating
Lookout Valley Opened: January 17, 1834
Reopened:
October 15, 1842
Closed: July 28, 1842
Reclosed: May 9, 1848
Loyalty Opened: July 23, 1866
Reopened: July 1, 1867
Closed: June 12, 1867
Reclosed:
September 13, 1872
Lupton City Opened: May 29, 1925 Closed: Operating
Maysville Opened: October 24, 1891 Closed: January 7, 1893
Melville Opened: January 15, 1878 Closed: December 12, 1883
Merry Oaks Opened: August 28, 1850 Closed: February 3, 1857
Mission Ridge Opened: September 29, 1884 Closed: July 6, 1888
Montlake Opened: January 29, 1909
Reopened: August 1, 1918
Closed: May 31, 1918
Reclosed:
September 15, 1923
Mountain Junction Opened: October 18, 1893 Closed: October 21, 1895
Mowbray Opened: April 24, 1901 Closed: May 15, 1905
North Chickamauga Opened: January 5, 1833 Closed: April 25, 1839
Norton Opened: May 19, 1909 Closed: July 10, 1909
Ooltewah Opened: September 13, 1837
Reopened: March 7, 1859
Reopened: July 5, 1913
Closed: March 30, 1843
Reclosed: July 29, 1873
Reclosed: Operating
Orchard Opened: July 19, 1894 Closed: July 11, 1895
Orchard Knob Opened: April 16, 1888 Closed: March 14, 1894
Poeville Opened: December 20, 1883 Closed: June 26, 1891
Pyatt Opened: March 7, 1900 Closed: December 14, 1905
Red Bank Opened: December 9, 1875 Closed: July 15, 1902
Retro Opened: June 23, 1880 Closed: July 10, 1914
Ridgedale Opened: April 16, 1887 Closed: September 30, 1903
Ross Landing Opened: March 22, 1837 Closed: November 14, 1938
Rossville Opened: February 28, 1832 Closed: February 6, 1834
Sail Creek Opened: October 26, 1841 Closed: Operating
Saint Elmo Opened: April 10, 1888 Closed:
Sale Creek Opened: October 26, 1841 Closed: Operating
Sawyers Opened: August 21, 1890 Closed: November 30, 1915
Scruggs Opened: December 29, 1899 Closed: February 28, 1905
Shallowford Opened: October 4, 1898 Closed: May 15, 1901
Shepherd Opened: June 16, 1898 Closed: December 21, 1855
Sherman Heights Opened: July 6, 1888 Closed: July 14, 1905
Signal Mountain Opened: July 21, 1915 Closed: Operating
Silverdale Opened: April 24, 1899 Closed: November 2, 1907
Sively Opened: December 23, 1878 Closed: April 7, 1880
Smithfield Opened: February 12, 1828 Closed: est. ca 1828
Snow Hill Opened: August 6, 1850 Closed: July 23, 1866
Soddy Opened: December 15, 1829
Reopened: April 10, 1850
Closed: December 3, 1845
Reclosed: October 13, 1972
Soddy-Daisy Opened: October 13, 1972 Closed: Operating
Stanley Opened: May 2, 1878 Closed: May 20, 1878
Suburba Opened: November 18, 1885
Reopened: June 21, 1890
Closed: May 21, 1890
Reclosed: May 15, 1901
Toqua Opened: April 28, 1843
Reopened: April 7, 1880
Closed: March 4, 1844
Reclosed:
December 18, 1884
Trewhitt Opened: June 1, 1883 Closed: July 15, 1901
Tyner Opened: September 13, 1860 Closed: September 21, 1972
Tynersville Opened: February 1, 1860 Closed: September 13, 1860
Valdeau Opened: January 13, 1897 Closed: September 15, 1915
Vannsville Opened: March 29, 1839 Closed: June 16, 1841
Waldron Opened: March 3, 1903 Closed: January 15, 1909
Wauhatchie Opened: January 2, 1866
Reopened: November 12, 1868
Reopened: June 5, 1889
Closed: October 12, 1868
Reclosed: May 2, 1888
Reclosed: July 20, 1918
Westview Opened: May 14, 1851 Closed: April 16, 1857
Whorley Opened: August 21, 1897 Closed: September 30, 1908
Williams Landing Opened: May 2, 1878 Closed: February 17, 1887
Zion Hill Opened: July 25, 1848
Reopened: July 27, 1858
Closed: February 14, 1857
Reclosed:
September 22, 1866

 

HAMILTON COUNTY PARKS
353 acre park
Named after famous educator Booker Taliaferro Washington
Located on shores of Chickamauga Reservoir
5801 Champion Rd
Chattanooga
Located off Hwy 58, 13 miles northeast of Chattanooga
ACCOMMODATIONS:
Group Lodge (42 persons)
Group Camping (96 persons)
RV Parking (33 sites)
Hook-ups
Electric
Water
Dump Station
Restrooms
Showers
Snack bar
Tent Camping

OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES: Baseball/Softball Field
Basketball Court
Hiking
Picnic Area
Ping pong
Playground

WATER ACTIVITIES:
Boat Launching
Boat Rental
Fishing
Swimming- Outdoor Pool
Swimming- Lake
Water/Jet Skiing

BOOKER T WASHINGTON STATE PARK

 

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8411 Harrison Bay Rd
Harrison
Located 11 miles north of Chattanooga on Hwy 58
1200 acre park
Park developed in the 1930’s
Covers 40 miles of Chickamauga Lake shoreline
Name from the old city of Harrison covered by the lake
ACCOMMODATIONS:
190 tent and RV campsites
135 sites have water and electric hook-ups
Group Camping (144 persons)
Restaurant
RV Parking (135 sites)
Hook-ups
Electric
Water
Dump Station
Laundry
Restrooms
Showers
Tent Camping (29 sites)
INDOOR ACTIVITIES:
Camp Store
Snack Bar

WATER ACTIVITIES:
Boat Dock with 140 boat slips
Boat Ramp
Boat Rentals
Canoeing
Fishing
Swimming- Lake
Swimming- Pool
Water/Jet Skiing

OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES:
Archery
Badminton courts
Croquet Courts
Hiking
Horseshoes
Picnic Area
Planned Activities
Playground
Shuffleboard
Tennis Courts
Volleyball

HARRISON BAY STATE PARK

 

HAMILTON COUNTY STATISTICS
1960 130,009
1970 119,923
1980 169,514
1990 152,466

POPULATION

Square Miles: 534
Miles of City Streets: 1108.80
Miles of County Roads: 536.98

SIZE

January average low 32.2 F
Average high 49.6 F
July average low 68.8 F
Average high 88.6 F

TEMPERATURES

Record catch 2 lbs, 14 oz
Caught in Chickamauga Reservoir
Record catch 5 lbs, 4 oz
Caught in Chickamauga Reservoir
State Record Brown Bullhead Catfish Fishing Record State Record Spotted or Kentucky Bass Fishing Record

 

ORGANIZED CITIES WITHIN HAMILTON COUNTY
COLLEGEDALE
Organized around 1895
Incorporated in 1909
POPULATION
1970 3,031
1980 4,607
1990 5,048
COLLEGEDALE MUNICIPAL AIRPORT 5100 Bess Moore Rd
Longest Runway  3,300 Ft
Runway Lights
Radio Communications: Unicom

 COLLEGEDALE, TENNESSEE

 

EAST RIDGE
Incorporated in 1970
Once site of a quarter mile horse racing oval
Once called Penny Row or Smokey Row or Nickel Row
Was chartered as East Ridge because of location, 1921
POPULATION
1960 19,570
1970 21,799
1980 21,236
1990 21,101

EAST RIDGE, TENNESSEE

 

HAMILTON
Exclusive residential area overlooking Chattanooga
Incorporated in 1890
Name derives from Cherokee word Atalidandakanika, meaning "mountains looking at each other"

HAMILTON, TENNESSEE

 

HARRISON

Dallas became county seat for 21 years giving way to Harrison in 1840

HARRISON, TENNESSEE

 

HIXSON
GOLF

Big Knockers Driving Range and Pro Shops

5570 Clear Creek Rd
Hixson
Creeks Bend Golf Club Inc 5900 Hixson Pike
Hixson
Valleybrook Golf & Country Club 180 Valleybrook Rd
Hixson
PARKS
Racquet Club 4932 Adams Rd
Hixson
HIXSON, TENNESSEE

 

LAKESITE
Incorporated in 1972

LAKESITE, TENNESSEE

 

LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN

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1110 East Brow Rd
Lookout Mountain, TN
Located next to Point Park’s visitor center
Recreation Appealing to all ages and provides an excellent overview of this important period
Features electronic battle map of Chattanooga’s Civil War history
5,000 miniature soldiers with new computerized sound system presents battles
Books, gifts & memorabilia can be found in the gift shop
Admission charged
Was center of intense fighting in the "Battle Above the Clouds", Nov 24, 1863
Served as headquarters for both sides
Home rebuilt by Cravens family after the war
Open to public Memorial Day to Labor Day
Admission charged
Battles for Chattanooga Museum Cravens House

 

LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN... VISITED
Friday, October 9, 1998
Stopped by a couple of antique malls, ate lunch at Ryan's, and drove to the base of Lookout Mountain.

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Took the Incline up to the top of the mountain

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3917 St Elmo Avenue
First incline station opened 1895
Was a three story lookout tower
Existing station opened 1986
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Whew... it was a long climb, but we finally made it to the top of the mountain.

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The view was well worth the trip.

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At the gift shop on top, we found some old pictures of the Incline wpe1F5.jpg (4415 bytes) wpe1F6.jpg (4938 bytes) wpe1FA.jpg (4787 bytes) wpe1F9.jpg (7854 bytes) wpe1F8.jpg (5903 bytes) wpe1F7.jpg (7650 bytes)

Shown here, one of the cars of Incline Number 1 is in the station at the top of the mountain near the site of the Point Hotel.  This picture was taken about 1892.  The first incline, a three-foot narrow gauge railway, was built to provide alternate access to the "Point" and to the hotel situated above Moccasin Bend.  Incline Number 2 at the cut of the bluff where the grade is 72.7%, the steepest point of the journey up Lookout mountain.  "Number 2" traveled on a broad gauge track and carried passengers directly to the top from the base at St Elmo.  This route is referred to as "America's Most Amazing Mile" and is still operating today as the Lookout Mountain Incline Railway.
After a short rest, we walked to Point Park to enjoy the views and nature trails.

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Point Park

Point Park is located on the northern crest of Lookout Mountain
The Civil War "Battle Above the Clouds" was fought on mountainside below, Nov 24, 1863
Monuments, markers and a museum commemorate the battle
Offers a panoramic view of Chattanooga and the Tennessee River
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The Point played a big part in Civil War battles around Chattanooga.

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We thought we had spotted a UFO... but it turned out to be just a boat on the river.

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The trails offered more scenic beauty.  On the trail with Cheri is an adventure in the unusual... such as moss and trees.

wpe213.jpg (10252 bytes) wpe218.jpg (15671 bytes) ... and flowers wpe20F.jpg (8948 bytes)
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...and rocks

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LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN... REVISITED
October 20, 1999
Cheri and I were traveling with her parents, Ann and Tim Tyler and decided to explore Lookout Mountain.
 After a short historic tour of St Elmo, we purchased tickets for the Incline up the big mountain.
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After we reached the summit, we walked about three blocks to Point Park and noted some interesting plant life on the way

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The view from the point was spectacular... to say the least.

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A few parting Point Park shots revealed...

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fall leaves...

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and a rock faced park sentential

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LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN, TENNESSEE

   

LUPTON

Hi.  I came across your website when I googled Lupton City, TN.  I am searching for some history on the beginning of this community.  I saw that you all do not have any history so I thought that I would share what I know...
We are living in my husband's grandparent's home that they purchased in 1958 in Lupton City.  From what his grandmother has told me, the Lupton/Dixie Plant created this community for its employees.  In the beginning, more than one family shared each home.  The plant provided a lot.  They had their own school, pool, and store.  If you ran short on money, the employees could get an advance on their checks for 'Dixie bucks' that were good only in the store here.  The only things left are the plant which is Stowe and the post office.
11'05-Thank you J.B.

LUPTON, TENNESSEE

 

RACCOON MOUNTAIN
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PUMPED STORAGE PROJECT

 

RED BANK
Was known as Dry Valley or Hamilton
Named after the rolling red clay hills of the community by Mrs. Hartman
Chartered in 1955
POPULATION
1960 10,777
1970 12,715
1980 13,129
1990 12,322

RED BANK, TENNESSEE

 

RIDGESIDE
Sometimes called Shepherd Hills
Resisted annexation by Chattanooga in 1929
Acquired a charter in 1931
POPULATION
1960 448
1970 458
1980 417
1990 400

RIDGESIDE, TENNESSEE

 

SIGNAL MOUNTAIN
SIGNAL MOUNTAIN... VISITED

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Wednesday, October 14, 1998
We decided to explore Signal Mountain today.  Drove up the "W Road" to the top of the mountain.  Took the East Brow Road to see where Paul lived from the 1943 to 1950

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We took a picture of the Signal Mountain Elementary School that Paul attended... way back in "cave man" days wpe1D0.jpg (10043 bytes) Cheri just had to try the out-door privy behind an 1800's church... watch out for those spiders, Cheri!! wpe1C5.jpg (10271 bytes) wpe1C9.jpg (6294 bytes) wpe1C8.jpg (7685 bytes)

Found the Cumberland Trail at Point Park, and hiked about three miles along a challenging and super scenic trail. 

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Signal Point

Located on Signal Mountain
Site of an important signaling point during Civil War battles for Chattanooga
Offers a spectacular view of the Tennessee River Gorge

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Scenes along the Cumberland Trail

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Looking like... a prehistoric fish in a rock

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SIGNAL MOUNTAIN, TENNESSEE

 

SODDY DAISY
GOLF
Montlake Golf & Country Club 9104 Brow Lake Rd
Soddy Daisy
HISTORICAL
Name came together when they were incorporated in 1969
Sequoyah Energy Connection 2000 Igou Ferry Rd, Soddy-Daisy
Visit the Energy connection’s 2,000 sq-ft exhibit area to learn about energy
Free
PARKS
North Chickamauga Pocket Wilderness Montlake Road
1,100 acre pocket wilderness
Overlooks, waterfalls and hiking trails, picnic area
STATISTICS
POPULATION
1970 7,569
1980 8,388
1990 8,240
LOCATION CODES Zip: 37379

SODDY DAISY, TENNESSEE

 

WALDEN
Name acquired from Walden Ridge which is named after John Walling
Chartered in 1975
POPULATION
1980 1,293
1990 1,523

WALDEN, TENNESSEE

 

SIGNS OF THE TIMES IN HAMILTON COUNTY
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CHERIFIC HAIR STYLES

 

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